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Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

著者名典拠詳細を非表示

著者の属性 団体
一般注記 Its Centre for Educational Research and Innovation ... 1970
Strategies for improving employment, job opportunities, and productivity, c1983: CIP pref. (Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD))
Les Nouvelles tendances de la planification ... 1980: t.p. (OCDE, Centre pour la recherche et l'innovation dans l'enseignement)
L'Intégration des jeunes handicapés ... 1980: t.p. (Centre pour la recherche et l'innovation en éducation; CERI)
International Seminar on the Educational Role of the Family (1983 : Kokuritsu Fujin Kyōiku Kaikan, Japan) OECD CERI Katei Kyōiku Kokusai Seminā hōkokusho, 1984: p. 1 (Kyōiku Kenkyū Kakushin Sentā)
EDSRC:学習の社会的成果 : 健康、市民・社会的関与と社会関係資本 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 坂巻弘之, 佐藤郡衛訳, 川崎誠司訳 (明石書店, 2008.4)
別名 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation
Center for Educational Research and Innovation
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Center for Educational Research and Innovation
C.E.R.I
CERI
Centre pour la recherche et l'innovation dans l'enseignement
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Centre pour la recherche et l'innovation dans l'enseignement
Centre pour la recherche et l'innovation en éducation
Kyōiku Kenkyū Kakushin Sentā
教育研究・革新センター<キョウイク ケンキュウ カクシン センター>
O.E.C.D. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation
OECD教育研究革新センター<OECD キョウイク ケンキュウ カクシン センター>
コード類 典拠ID=AU00015735  NCID=DA00438894
1 Teachers as designers of learning environments : the importance of innovative pedagogies / Alejandro Paniagua and David Istance : print. - Paris : OECD , c2018
2 The nature of problem solving : using research to inspire 21st century learning / edited by Benő Csapó and Joachim Funke Paris : OECD , c2017
3 Schools at the crossroads of innovation in cities and regions : print. - Paris : OECD , c2017
4 Educational opportunity for all : overcoming inequality throughout the life course : print. - Paris : OECD , c2017
5 アートの教育学 : 革新型社会を拓く学びの技 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 篠原康正, 篠原真子, 袰岩晶訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2016.10
6 21世紀型学習のリーダーシップ : イノベーティブな学習環境をつくる / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 斎藤里美 [ほか] 訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2016.9
7 学びのイノベーション : 21世紀型学習の創発モデル / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 多々納誠子, 小熊利江訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2016.9
8 Governing education in a complex world / edited by Tracey Burns and Florian Köster : print. - Paris : OECD , c2016
9 グローバル化と言語能力 : 自己と他者、そして世界をどうみるか / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 徳永優子 [ほか] 訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2015.10
10 メタ認知の教育学 : 生きる力を育む創造的数学力 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 篠原真子, 篠原康正, 袰岩晶訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2015.8
11 多様性を拓く教師教育 : 多文化時代の各国の取り組み / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 布川あゆみ [ほか] 訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2014.8
12 Measuring innovation in education : a new perspective / Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin ... [et al.] : print. - Paris : OECD , c2014
13 学習の本質 : 研究の活用から実践へ / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 佐藤智子 [ほか] 訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2013.3
14 Art for art's sake? : the impact of arts education / Ellen Winner, Thalia R. Goldstein and Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin : print. - [Paris] : OECD , c2013
15 Leadership for 21st century learning : print. - Paris : OECD , c2013
16 知識の創造・普及・活用 : 学習社会のナレッジ・マネジメント / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 青山貴子 [ほか] 訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2012.3
17 Teaching practices and pedagogical innovation : evidence from TALIS / Svenja Vieluf ... [et al.] : print. - Paris : OECD , c2012
18 教育と健康・社会的関与 : 学習の社会的成果を検証する / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 山形伸二 [ほか] 訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2011.6
19 Educating teachers for diversity : meeting the challenge : print. - Paris : OECD , c2010
20 Are the new millennium learners making the grade? : technology use and educational performance in PISA [Paris] : Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD , c2010
21 Improving health and social cohesion through education [Paris] : OECD, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation , c2010
22 Inspired by technology, driven by pedagogy : a systemic approach to technology-based school innovations / [Centre for Educational Research and Innovation] : print. - [Paris] : OECD , c2010
23 Innovative workplaces : making better use of skills within organisations : print. - [Paris] : OECD , c2010
24 脳からみた学習 : 新しい学習科学の誕生 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 小山麻紀, 徳永優子訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2010.12
25 教育のトレンド : 図表でみる世界の潮流と教育の課題 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 座波圭美訳 [1],2. - 東京 : 明石書店 , 2009.1-2011.9
26 Beyond textbooks : digital learning resources as systemic innovation in the Nordic countries [Paris] : Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD , c2009
27 Working out change : systemic innovation in vocational education and training [Paris] : Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD , c2009
28 Globalization [Paris] : Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD , c2009
29 教育とエビデンス : 研究と政策の協同に向けて / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 岩崎久美子 [ほか] 訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2009.12
30 形成的アセスメントと学力 : 人格形成のための対話型学習をめざして / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 有本昌弘監訳 ; 小田勝己, 小田玲子, 多々納誠子訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2008.3
31 Teaching, learning and assessment for adults : improving foundation skills / by Janet Looney Paris : OECD , c2008
32 学習の社会的成果 : 健康、市民・社会的関与と社会関係資本 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 坂巻弘之, 佐藤郡衛, 川崎誠司訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2008.4
33 Trends shaping education / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation 2008 ed - 2019 : print. - [Paris] : OECD , c2008-
34 国境を越える高等教育 : 教育の国際化と質保証ガイドライン / OECD教育研究革新センター, 世界銀行編著 ; 徳永優子, 矢倉美登里訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2008.11
35 個別化していく教育 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 岩崎久美子訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2007.7
36 Giving knowledge for free : the emergence of open educational resources Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2007
37 Understanding the brain : the birth of a learning science Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2007
38 Evidence in education : linking research and policy Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2007
39 Understanding the social outcomes of learning Paris : OECD , c2007
40 Cross-border tertiary education : a way towards capacity development Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C.] : World Bank , c2007
41 デマンドに応える学校 : 教育の社会的な需要と供給 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 平沢安政訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2007.11
42 Think scenarios, rethink education Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2006
43 Personalising education Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2006
44 高等教育におけるeラーニング : 国際事例の評価と戦略 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 慶應義塾大学DMC機構訳 東京 : 東京電機大学出版局 , 2006.9
45 教育のシナリオ : 未来思考による新たな学校像 / OECD教育研究革新センター編著 ; 伊藤素江, 古屋貴子, 有本昌弘訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2006.11
46 Demand-sensitive schooling? : evidence and issues Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2006
47 Formative assessment : improving learning in secondary classrooms / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2005
48 脳を育む : 学習と教育の科学 / OECD教育研究革新センター(CERI)編著 ; 小山麻紀訳 東京 : 明石書店 , 2005.2
49 E-learning in tertiary education : where do we stand? / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2005
50 Students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages : statistics and indicators Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2005
51 Innovation in the knowledge economy : implications for education and learning Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2004
52 Equity in education : students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages : statistics and indicators Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2004
53 Quality and recognition in higher education : the cross-border challenge / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2004
54 Internationalisation and trade in higher education : opportunities and challenges / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2004
55 Networks of innovation : towards new models for managing schools and systems Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2003
56 Understanding the brain : towards a new learning science Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2002
57 The well-being of nations : the role of human and social capital / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation ; [co-authored by Tom Healy and Sylvain Côté ; with significant input from John F. Helliwell, Simon Field and many other colleagues within the OECD Secretariat] Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2001
58 New school management approaches / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2001
59 E-learning : the partnership challenge / [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2001
60 What schools for the future? / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2001
61 Knowledge management in the learning society Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2000
62 Motivating students for lifelong learning Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2000
63 Learning to bridge the digital divide Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2000
64 Special needs education : statistics and indicators Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c2000
65 Overcoming exclusion through adult learning Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1999
66 Innovating schools / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1999
67 Inclusive education at work : students with disabilities in mainstream schools Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1999
68 Human capital investment : an international comparison Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1998
69 Co-ordinating services for children and youth at risk : a world view Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1998
70 Staying ahead : in-service training and teacher professional development Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1998
71 Making the curriculum work / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1998
72 親の学校参加 : 良きパートナーとして / OECD教育研究革新センター著 ; 中嶋博, 山西優二, 沖清豪訳 東京 : 学文社 , 1998.12
73 Children and families at risk : new issues in integrating services Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1998
74 Prepared for life? : how to measure cross-curricular competencies = Prêts pour l'avenir? : comment mesurer les compétences transdisciplinaires Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1997
75 Implementing inclusive education / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1997
76 Parents as partners in schooling / Center for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1997
77 Post-compulsory education for disabled people Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1997
78 Education policy analysis / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation 1997 (1997)-. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1997-
79 図表でみる教育 : OECD教育インディケータ / OECD教育研究革新センター編集 ; 文部省大臣官房調査統計企画課監訳 [1996年版] ([1996])-. - 東京 : ぎょうせい , 1996.4-
80 Integrating services for children at risk : Denmark, France, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom (England and Wales) / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1996
81 Knowledge bases for education policies : proceedings of a conference held in Maastricht, the Netherlands, on 11-13 September 1995 Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1996
82 Internationalisation of higher education / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1996
83 Information technology and the future of post-secondary education / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1996
84 Education at a glance : analysis Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1996
85 Successful services for our children and families at risk Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1996
86 Mapping the future : young people and career guidance / Centre for educational research and innovation [Paris] : Organisation for economic co-operation and development , 1996
87 Adult learning and technology in OECD countries : proceedings of a round table held in Philadelphia, United States on 14-16 February 1996 Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1996
88 Measuring the quality of schools = Mesurer la qualité des établissements scolaires Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
89 Measuring what students learn = Mesurer les résultats scolaires Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
90 Public expectations of the final stage of compulsory education = Le dernier cycle de l'enseignement obligatoire : quelle attente? Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
91 Education and employment = Formation et emploi Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1995
92 Learning beyond schooling : new forms of supply and new demands Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
93 Our children at risk Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
94 Schools under scrutiny / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
95 Environmental learning for the 21st century / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
96 Educational research and development : trends, issues and challenges Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
97 Educational research and development : Austria, Germany, Switzerland Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1995
98 Decision-making in 14 OECD education systems / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1995
99 Making education count : developing and using international indicators / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1994
100 School : a matter of choice Paris : OECD , c1994
101 Quality in teaching Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1994
102 Curriculum reform : assessment in question = La réforme des programmes scolaires : l'évaluation en question Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1993
103 Adult illiteracy and economic performance Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1992
104 Schools and business : a new partnership Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , 1992
105 The OECD international education indicators : a framework for analysis / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1992
106 Education at a glance : OECD indicators / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation = Regards sur l'éducation : les indicateurs de l'OCDE / Centre pour la recherche et l'innovation dans l'enseignement 1992 (1992)-. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1992-
107 From school to work / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1991
108 Environment, schools and active learning / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1991
109 Curriculum reform : an overview of trends / by Malcolm Skilbeck Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1990
110 One school, many cultures / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1989
111 Information technologies in education : the quest for quality software / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1989
112 Human resources and corporate strategy : technological change in banks and insurance companies : France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, United States / by Olivier Bertrand and Thierry Noyelle ; Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1988
113 The right to adult status / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1988
114 Immigrants' children at school / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1987
115 Multicultural education / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - Washington, D.C. : OECD Publications and Information Center [distributor] , 1987
116 Adults in higher education / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1987
117 Information technologies and basic learning : reading, writing, science and mathematics / Centre for Educational Resaerch and Innovation (CERI) : pbk. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1987
118 New information technologies : a challenge for education / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1986
119 Young people with handicaps : the road to adulthood / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - Washington, D.C. : OECD Publications and Information Center [distributor] , 1986
120 Becoming adult in a changing society / by James S. Coleman and Torsten Husén Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1985
121 Integration of the handicapped in secondary schools : five case studies / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1985
122 Handicapped youth at work : personal experiences of school-leavers / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1985
123 Education and work : the views of the young / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris, France : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - Washington, D.C. : OECD Publications and Information Center [distributor] , 1983
124 The transition from school to working life / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , c1983
125 Education, urban development, and local initiatives / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) : pbk. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washinton, D.C. : OECD Publications and Information Center, distributor] , 1983
126 In-service education and training of teachers : a condition for educational change / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) : pbk. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1982
127 Caring for young children : an analysis of educational and social services / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation : pbk. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development , 1982
128 The University and the community : the problems of changing relationships / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation : pbk. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : Distributed by OECD Publications and Information Center] , 1982
129 Children and society : issues for pre-school reforms : pbk. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1981
130 Integration in the school / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1981
131 The education of the handicapped adolescent / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1981-
132 The consequences of some policy choices Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1980
133 Child and family : demographic developments in the OECD countries / [by Hervé Le Bras] ; Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : Sold by OECD Publications and Information Center] , 1979
134 School-based curriculum development / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications and Information Center] , 1979
135 Educational financing and policy goals for primary schools : country reports / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) v. 1,v. 2,v. 3. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Centre] , 1979
136 Innovation in in-service education and training of teachers : practice and theory / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1978
137 Creativity of the school : conclusions of a programme of enquiry / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1978
138 Pre-school education : report from five research projects / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1978
139 Innovative practices in secondary education : the lower secondary stage : problems and possibilities / by Tim McMullen Paris : OECD. - [Washington, D.C. : Sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1978
140 Alternation between work and education : a study of educational leave of absence at enterprise level / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1978
141 Pathways in development / by T.G.R. Bower Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1977
142 Early childhood care and education : objectives and issues / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1977
143 Health, higher education and the community : towards a regional health university : report of an international conference at OECD, Paris, 15th-18th December, 1975 Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1977
144 Management information systems for higher education / edited by K. M. Hussain Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1977
145 Recurrent education : its effects on the Austrian education system Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1977
146 Piagetian inventories : the experiments of Jean Piaget / Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1977
147 Recurrent education : policy and development in OECD member countries : France / by Jean-Michel Belorgey Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1976
148 Institutional resource allocation models in higher education / by K.M. Hussain Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : available from OECD Publications Center] , 1976
149 New directions in education for changing health care systems Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : Sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1975
150 School and community : a report based on presentations made to a conference at Slaugham, United Kingdom, 15th-19th October, 1973 [v. 1]. - Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. - [Washington, D.C. : sold by OECD Publications Center] , 1975
151 Recurrent education : policy and development in OECD member countries : Australia / by Christopher Duke Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1974
152 Case studies of educational innovation v. 1 - v. 4. - [Paris] : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1973
153 Recurrent education : a strategy for lifelong learning [Paris] : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1973
154 Strategies of compensation : a review of educational projects for the disadvantaged in the United States / by Alan Little and George Smith Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , 1971
155 Schooling for tomorrow Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development